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The first step is to think about how much you can afford to pay out each month for a mortgage payment. Keep in mind that a mortgage payment typically includes property taxes and mortgage insurance as well as the mortgage payment itself. The general rule of thumb is that no more than 28% of your gross monthly income should be spent on housing expenses.
If you plan to borrow money from a lender then you might want to consider getting pre-qualified. Pre-qualification is helpful to the buyer for planning purposes because it gives you an estimate of the maximum mortgage amount you can afford based on your current financial situation. Unlike a pre-approval, pre-qualification is not a commitment on the part of the lender, but it does give you an idea of the mortgage amount you probably qualify for. Knowing this information in advance can help you figure out a price range for your new home.
When you’re figuring out a price range, don’t forget to take into account any amount you apply as part of a down payment. You will want to save as possible for a down payment. The reasons for this are two-fold: first, lenders will not require you to pay for private mortgage insurance if you can come up with a 20% down payment; second, the sooner you pay off your mortgage, the better off you are financially.
Once you've figured out a price range let your real estate agent know what it is, but don't be afraid to look at homes that are 15% to 20% over your price range. In many cases you will be able to negotiate the price down.
As a home buyer you pay a commission to the agent, so you want to make sure you are getting your money's worth. What you need is an agent who is competent and experienced, and whose way of working is compatible with your own. If you're working with a real estate agent that you feel is not doing his or her best to find you the home you want, then don't hesitate to find a new one.
When looking for a real estate agent ask yourself the following:
Is the Agent Full-Time? Is the Agent Experienced?
Does the Agent Listen, and Communicate Clearly?
Is the Agent Willing to Negotiate For You?
Is the Agent Careful In His or Her Work?
You can shop for and buy a home without a real estate agent, but keep in mind that it will be more time consuming. Home buyers who already have a property in mind that they want to buy are the best candidates to forgo an agent, but if you're willing to do the extra legwork such as searching for properties, scheduling appointments to see them, coordinating inspections, and negotiating, then it's probably worth a try.
Here are some negotiating tips:
The purchase of a home is probably the largest single investment you will ever make. You should learn as much as you can about the condition of the property and the need for any major repairs before you buy.
The standard home inspector's report will include an evaluation of the condition of the home's heating system, central air conditioning system (temperature permitting), interior plumbing and electrical systems; the roof, attic, and visible insulation; walls, ceilings, floors, windows and doors; the foundation, basement, and visible structure.
The inspection fee for a typical one-family house varies by region and may also vary depending upon the size of the house, particular features of the house, its age, and whether additional services are required such as septic, well, or radon testing. The knowledge gained from an inspection is well worth the cost however.
Not all states require home inspectors to be licensed or certified. When hiring a house inspector, qualifications, including experience, training, and professional affiliations, should be the most important considerations. One organization that can help you find a qualified home inspector is the American Society of Home Inspectors (ASHI). You can contact them through their website: www.ashi.org
Once you find a home you may want to do some remodeling or updating. Before you get started however, make sure that the remodeling you're doing is something that the average home buyer wants such as a modern kitchen, larger closets, and modernized or additional bathrooms. Improvements in electrical wiring are also a plus, and when redecorating, keep future buyers in mind and use neutral colors.
Do not pay the contractor too much money up front.
Don't contract with someone who's not bonded, licensed, and insured.
Ask for as much detail as possible from the contractor about what the job will entail.
Closing costs vary by state and by lender so it pays to shop around if possible. In addition, many of the fees associated with closing costs are negotiable such as credit checks, application fees, title searches, broker fees, appraisals, and other processing fees. Property taxes, homeowners' insurance (usually paid one year in advance), and private mortgage insurance (PMI) are not negotiable. One of the largest closing costs is likely to be the origination fee, which is typically 1 percent of the mortgage. You may also pay from 1 to 3 points, or 1 percent to 3 percent in up-front interest. If you put less than 20 percent down, you will also need private mortgage insurance, which includes a one-time fee of up to 1 point plus a specific dollar amount that is included in your monthly mortgage payment.
Your lender must send you an estimate of your closing costs, referred to as a GFE or Good Faith Estimate (required by law), within three days of receiving your application and your realtor, lawyer, or escrow agent will give you the exact amount of your closing costs before closing. If you have only enough cash for a down payment, you can fold closing costs into your mortgage, but you will have to pay a higher interest rate. You can also ask the seller to pay some of the closing costs when you are negotiating your price.
Depending on your particular situation, owning a home makes might make more economic sense than renting one. With home prices dropping and mortgage rates at historically low rates, people who are planning to stay in their homes long-term can build equity over time and reap the benefits of writing off mortgage interest on their taxes. A modest increase in value represents an even greater gain for people who make a typical down payment of 20 percent or less. The higher your income tax bracket, the better your return.
You may want to rent however, if you can find cheap housing, such as a rent-controlled apartment or the cost of renting is substantially less than owning. If you are young and single, newly divorced, move often with your job, or just don't want the responsibility of home ownership, then renting probably makes more sense. It's tough to recover the costs of buying a home within the first five to seven years, so if you're planning on moving before then renting is a better option. Retirees also may want to sell the family homestead and invest the proceeds. If you live in an area where housing prices are falling, then wait until the market bottoms out before you buy.